Project Objectives

1. Volcanic Risk Assessment

• To develop a robust scanning mini-doas instrument suitable for automatic unattended gas flux measurements from volcanoes.
• To develop a communication system for real time data transfer between instruments and observatory and between observatory and the internet.
• To build, calibrate and install 30 instruments on the 15 volcanoes of the project, and to train the observatory staff in their use and maintenance.
• To develop routines for off-line batch processing of spectra, Quality Assurance and Quality Control, as well as archiving in accordance with standards applied by ESA and NDSC.
• To conduct measurements at each volcano and to correlate the time-resolved SO2 flux data and BrO/SO2 ratio with other geophysical parameters monitored at each volcano to gain deeper knowledge about the geophysical status of the volcanoes.
• When applicable the combined information from 2 scanning instruments should be used to derive tomographic information about 2-dimensional gas concentration distributions downwind the volcano. This information, combined with knowledge about the source strength of the gas emissions should be offered to local authorities and organisations involved with studies of local and regional impact of the gas emissions from the volcano.
• To use this knowledge to incorporate the NOVAC gas measurements in the routines for risk assessment at respective volcano.

2. Global Volcanic Research

• Gas data from all the volcanoes should be used to compile improved global volcanic gas emission estimates (SO2, BrO).
• Study correlations of volcanic gas emissions over large spatial scales.
• Study correlations between volcanic gas emission, earthquakes and landslides.
• Study correlations between volcanic gas emissions and other geophysical phenomena (e.g. displacements, meteorology, earth tides….)
• Use the volcanic gas emission data to validate satellites (ENVISAT, TOMS, OMI GOME-2). Both satellite total columns and algorithms for flux calculations should be validated.

3. Additional Atmospheric Research

• Use zenith sky spectra to derive information on molecules of relevance for stratospheric ozone depletion. Primarily NO2 will be derived. The NOVAC instrument will be validated against an NDSC approved instrument, and if accepted the data will be offered the NDSC community.
• Use the MAX-DOAS principle to derive information on molecules of relevance for climate change (SO2, NO2, CH2O). These data, as well as data on the volcanic gas emissions, will be used in the project IANABIS to study impact on the troposphere from volcanoes, megacities, biomass burning and forest fires.