1. Volcanic Risk Assessment
• To develop a robust scanning mini-doas instrument suitable
for automatic unattended gas flux measurements from volcanoes.
• To develop a communication system for real time data transfer between
instruments and observatory and between observatory and the internet.
• To build, calibrate and install 30 instruments on the 15 volcanoes of
the project, and to train the observatory staff in their use and
• To develop routines for off-line batch processing of spectra, Quality
Assurance and Quality Control, as well as archiving in accordance with
standards applied by ESA and NDSC.
• To conduct measurements at each volcano and to correlate the
time-resolved SO2 flux data and BrO/SO2 ratio with other geophysical
parameters monitored at each volcano to gain deeper knowledge about the
geophysical status of the volcanoes.
• When applicable the combined information from 2 scanning instruments
should be used to derive tomographic information about 2-dimensional
gas concentration distributions downwind the volcano. This information,
combined with knowledge about the source strength of the gas emissions
should be offered to local authorities and organisations involved with
studies of local and regional impact of the gas emissions from the
• To use this knowledge to incorporate the NOVAC gas measurements in
the routines for risk assessment at respective volcano.
2. Global Volcanic Research
• Gas data from all the volcanoes should be used to compile
improved global volcanic gas emission estimates (SO2, BrO).
• Study correlations of volcanic gas emissions over large spatial
• Study correlations between volcanic gas emission, earthquakes and
• Study correlations between volcanic gas emissions and other
geophysical phenomena (e.g. displacements, meteorology, earth tides….)
• Use the volcanic gas emission data to validate satellites (ENVISAT,
TOMS, OMI GOME-2). Both satellite total columns and algorithms for flux
calculations should be validated.
3. Additional Atmospheric Research
• Use zenith sky spectra to derive information on molecules of
relevance for stratospheric ozone depletion. Primarily NO2 will be
derived. The NOVAC instrument will be validated against an NDSC
approved instrument, and if accepted the data will be offered the NDSC
• Use the MAX-DOAS principle to derive information on molecules of
relevance for climate change (SO2, NO2, CH2O). These data, as well as
data on the volcanic gas emissions, will be used in the project IANABIS
to study impact on the troposphere from volcanoes, megacities, biomass
burning and forest fires.